Su Bin, who was arrested in Canada last month, is accused of working with two other suspects to steal data about military projects and sell it to China.
Prosecutors said Mr Su was targeting information about fighter jets, military cargo aircraft and weapons.
A 2013 US report identified industrial spying from China as a growing threat.
There has been no specific allegation of involvement by the Chinese government in Mr Su’s case, but the US has accused China of systematically stealing American high-tech data for its national gain.
The US Department of Justice recently indicted five Chinese military officers for hacking into US businesses – charges dismissed by China as a fabrication.